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Roman Numerals

Roman Numerals

What Are Roman Numerals and How Do They Work?

Roman numerals are an ancient numbering system that originated in Rome (hence the name “Roman”). Which are Arabic numerals, or the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.Unlike Arabic numerals, Roman numerals are a tight system of only seven symbols, which you can combine to form new numbers through special rules of addition and subtraction (we’ll explain how these rules work in just a moment).

Here are the seven Roman numerals and what they mean:

Rule 1: Repetition of a roman numeral means addition. A symbol can be repeated a maximum of Three times in numeral

Write the following in Hindu Arabic Numeral

  1. XXX
  2. CC
  3. MM

Solution:

  1. XXX = 10 + 10 + 10 = 30
  2. CC = 100 + 100 = 200
  3. MM = 1000 + 1000 =2000

Rule 2: Putting a symbol of smaller value ‘after’ a symbol of bigger value means adding the values of the symbols.

Write the following in Hindu Arabic Numeral

  1. LXX
  2. XVII
  3. MCII

Solution:

  1. LXX = 50 + 10 + 10 = 70
  2. XVII = 10 + 5 + 2 = 17
  3. MCII = 1000 + 100 + 1 + 1 = 1102

Rule 3: Putting a symbol of smaller value ‘before’ a symbol of bigger value means subtracting the value of the first symbol from that of the second.

Write the following in Hindu Arabic Numeral

  1. XL
  2. XC
  3. CM
  4. 400

Solution:

  1. XL = 50 -10 = 40
  2. XC = 100 – 10 = 90
  3. CM = 1000 – 100 = 900

Rule 3: Putting a symbol of smaller value ‘before’ a symbol of bigger value means subtracting the value of the first symbol from that of the second.Rule 4: If a symbol of smaller value comes in between two symbols of larger values, then its value is always subtracted from the value of the symbol immediately following it.

Write the following in Hindu Arabic Numeral

  1. XIV
  2. CXL
  3. MCD
  4. MXC
  5. DXC
  6. XIX

Solution:

  1. XIV = 10 + ( 5 – 1) = 10 + 4 = 14
  2. CXL = 100 + ( 50 – 10 ) = 100 + 40 = 140
  3. MCD = 1000 + (500 – 100) = 1000 + 400 = 1400
  4. MXC = 1000 + ( 100 – 10 ) = 100 + 90 = 1090
  5. DXC = 500 + ( 100 – 10 ) = 500 + 90 = 590
  6. XIX = 10 + ( 10 – 1) = 10 + 9 = 19

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